Australian Government, 2013-14 Budget
Budget

Appendix C: Historical Australian Government Data

Appendix C reports historical data for selected fiscal aggregates of the Australian Government general government sector.

Data sources

Data are sourced from Australian Government Final Budget Outcomes, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and Australian Government Consolidated Financial Statements.

  • Accrual data from 1996‑97 onwards, and cash data and net debt data from 1999‑2000 onwards are sourced from Australian Government Final Budget Outcomes. Back‑casting adjustments for accounting classification changes and other revisions have been made from 1998‑1999 onwards where applicable.
  • Cash data prior to 1999‑2000 are sourced from ABS data, which have been calculated using methodology consistent with that used for later years in ABS cat. no. 5512.0 Government Finance Statistics.
  • Net debt data prior to 1999‑2000 are from ABS cat. no. 5512.0 Government Finance Statistics 2003‑04 in 1998‑99, ABS cat. no. 5501.0 Government Financial Estimates 1999‑2000 and ABS cat. no. 5513.0 Public Sector Financial Assets and Liabilities 1998 in 1987‑88 to 1997‑98, and Treasury estimates (see Treasury's Economic Roundup, Spring 1996, pages 97‑103) prior to 1987‑88.

Comparability of data across years

The data set contains a number of structural breaks owing to accounting classification differences and changes to the structure of the budget which cannot be eliminated through back‑casting because of data limitations. These breaks can affect the comparability of data across years, especially when the analysis is taken over a large number of years. Specific factors causing structural breaks include:

  • from 2005‑06 onwards, underlying Government Finance Statistics (GFS) data are provided by agencies applying Australian Accounting Standards (AAS) which includes International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as adopted in Australia. Prior to 2005‑06, underlying GFS data are based on data provided by agencies applying AAS prior to the adoption of IFRS;
  • most recent accounting classification changes that require revisions to the historical series have been back‑cast (where applicable) to 1998‑1999, ensuring that data are consistent across the accrual period from 1998‑1999 onwards. However, because of data limitations, these changes have not been back‑cast to earlier years;
  • prior to 1999‑2000, Australian Government general government sector debt instruments are valued at historic cost, whereas from 1999‑2000 onwards they are valued at market prices (consistent with accrual GFS standards). This affects net debt and net interest payments;
  • cash data up to and including 1997‑98 are calculated under a cash accounting framework, while cash data from 1998‑99 onwards is derived from an accrual accounting framework.1 Although the major methodological differences associated with the move to the accrual framework have been eliminated through back‑casting, comparisons across the break may still be affected by changes to some data sources and collection methodologies;
  • changes in arrangements for transfer payments, where tax concessions or rebates have been replaced by payments through the social security system. This has the effect of increasing both cash receipts and payments, as compared with earlier periods, but not changing cash balances. Changes in the opposite direction (tax expenditures replacing payments) reduce both cash payments and receipts; and
  • classification differences in the data relating to the period prior to 1976‑77 (which means that earlier data may not be entirely consistent with data for 1976‑77 onwards).

Revisions to previously published data

Under the accrual GFS framework and generally under AAS, flows are recorded in the period in which they occurred. As a result, prior period outcomes may be revised for classification changes relating to information that could reasonably have been expected to be known in the past, is material in at least one of the affected periods, and can be reliably assigned to the relevant period(s).

Deflating real spending growth by the consumer price index

The 2013 Economic Statement, including the historical series, calculates real spending growth using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) as the deflator. This is also the benchmark against which the Government's fiscal strategy is based. Prior to the 2008‑09 Budget the non‑farm GDP (NFGDP) deflator was used and has therefore been shown in this appendix for comparative purposes.

The use of the CPI, rather than the non‑farm GDP deflator, provides a more accurate depiction of real government spending growth, especially in the current economic climate. The non‑farm GDP deflator incorporates fluctuations in global commodity prices which are not relevant for Government expenditures. Therefore, deflating government spending by the non‑farm GDP deflator distorts trends in real spending growth.

Data source for 2012‑13

The fiscal estimates for 2012‑13 in the historical series are as published in the 2013‑14 Budget. The 2012‑13 outcome will be published in the 2012‑13 Final Budget Outcome by 30 September 2013.

Table C1: Australian Government general government sector receipts, payments, net Future Fund earnings and underlying cash balance(a)
  Receipts(b)   Payments(c)   Net Future Fund earnings   Underlaying cash balance (d)
  $m Per cent of GDP   $m Per cent real growth (CPI) Per cent real growth (NFGDP deflator)(f) Per cent of GDP   $m   $m Per cent of GDP
1970-71 8,290 20.6   7,389 na na 18.3   -   901 2.2
1971-72 9,135 20.5   8,249 4.1 4.7 18.6   -   886 2.0
1972-73 9,735 19.6   9,388 7.7 7.8 18.9   -   348 0.7
1973-74 12,228 20.3   11,078 4.2 3.6 18.4   -   1,150 1.9
1974-75 15,643 22.0   15,463 19.9 14.5 21.7   -   181 0.3
1975-76 18,727 22.5   20,225 15.7 13.5 24.3   -   -1,499 -1.8
1976-77 21,890 22.8   23,157 0.6 1.9 24.1   -   -1,266 -1.3
1977-78 24,019 22.9   26,057 2.7 3.3 24.8   -   -2,037 -1.9
1978-79 26,129 22.0   28,272 0.3 2.8 23.8   -   -2,142 -1.8
1979-80 30,321 22.5   31,642 1.5 2.1 23.5   -   -1,322 -1.0
1980-81 35,993 23.6   36,176 4.6 3.6 23.7   -   -184 -0.1
1981-82 41,499 23.6   41,151 2.9 0.5 23.4   -   348 0.2
1982-83 45,463 24.0   48,810 6.3 6.2 25.8   -   -3,348 -1.8
1983-84 49,981 23.4   56,990 9.4 9.7 26.7   -   -7,008 -3.3
1984-85 58,817 25.0   64,853 9.1 8.4 27.5   -   -6,037 -2.6
1985-86 66,206 25.4   71,328 1.5 3.4 27.4   -   -5,122 -2.0
1986-87 74,724 26.2   77,158 -1.1 0.8 27.0   -   -2,434 -0.9
1987-88 83,491 25.7   82,039 -0.9 -0.3 25.3   -   1,452 0.4
1988-89 90,748 24.7   85,326 -3.1 -4.3 23.2   -   5,421 1.5
1989-90 98,625 24.4   92,684 0.6 1.7 22.9   -   5,942 1.5
1990‑91 100,227 24.1   100,665 3.1 3.8 24.2   -   -438 -0.1
1991‑92 95,840 22.6   108,472 5.7 6.0 25.6   -   -12,631 -3.0
1992‑93 97,633 22.0   115,751 5.6 5.9 26.0   -   -18,118 -4.1
1993‑94 103,824 22.2   122,009 3.5 4.3 26.1   -   -18,185 -3.9
1994‑95 113,458 22.9   127,619 1.4 2.6 25.7   -   -14,160 -2.9
1995‑96 124,429 23.5   135,538 1.9 3.3 25.6   -   -11,109 -2.1
1996‑97 133,592 24.0   139,689 1.7 1.5 25.1   -   -6,099 -1.1
1997‑98 140,736 23.9   140,587 0.6 -0.6 23.9   -   149 0.0
1998‑99 152,063 24.5   148,175 4.1 4.7 23.8   -   3,889 0.6
1999‑00 166,199 25.1   153,192 1.0 0.8 23.1   -   13,007 2.0
2000‑01 182,996 25.9   177,123 9.1 10.7 25.1   -   5,872 0.8
2001‑02 187,588 24.8   188,655 3.5 4.2 25.0   -   -1,067 -0.1
2002‑03 204,613 25.5   197,243 1.4 1.6 24.6   -   7,370 0.9
2003‑04 217,775 25.3   209,785 3.9 2.9 24.4   -   7,990 0.9
2004‑05 235,984 25.6   222,407 3.5 1.9 24.1   -   13,577 1.5
2005‑06 255,943 25.7   240,136 4.6 2.8 24.1   51   15,757 1.6
2006‑07 272,637 25.2   253,321 2.5 0.6 23.4   2,127   17,190 1.6
2007‑08 294,917 25.1   271,843 3.8 2.7 23.1   3,319   19,754 1.7
2008‑09 292,600 23.3   316,046 12.7 10.3 25.2   3,566   -27,013 -2.2
2009‑10 284,662 22.0   336,900 4.2 5.6 26.1   2,256   -54,494 -4.2
2010‑11 302,024 21.5   346,102 -0.4 -3.1 24.7   3,385   -47,463 -3.4
2011‑12 329,874 22.4   371,032 4.8 5.4 25.2   2,203   -43,360 -2.9
2012‑13(e) 350,410 23.2   367,286 -3.2 -0.4 24.3   2,501   -19,377 -1.3
2013‑14(e) 369,364 23.6   396,560 5.7 6.7 25.3   2,946   -30,142 -1.9
2014‑15(e) 390,160 23.8   411,170 1.6 2.3 25.1   2,962   -23,972 -1.5
2015‑16(p) 423,288 24.6   424,806 0.8 1.0 24.6   3,189   -4,708 -0.3
2016‑17(p) 450,736 24.8   443,315 1.8 2.0 24.4   3,393   4,027 0.2

(a) Data have been revised in the 2013 Economic Statement to improve accuracy and comparability through time.

(b) Receipts are equal to receipts from operating activities and sales of non‑financial assets.

(c) Payments are equal to payments for operating activities, purchases of non‑financial assets and net acquisition of assets under finance leases.

(d) Underlying cash balance is equal to receipts less payments, less net Future Fund earnings. For the purposes of consistent comparison with years prior to 2005‑06, net Future Fund earnings should be added back to the underlying cash balance.

(e) Estimates.

(f) Real spending growth using the non‑farm GDP deflator has not been used as the relevant measure of real spending growth since 2007‑08, and is included for comparative purposes only.

(p) Projections.

 

Table C2: Australian Government general government sector taxation receipts, non‑taxation receipts and total receipts(a)
  Taxation receipts   Non-taxation receipts   Total receipts(b)
  $m Per cent of GDP   $m Per cent of GDP   $m Per cent of GDP
1970-71 7,193 17.8   1,097 2.7   8,290 20.6
1971-72 7,895 17.8   1,240 2.8   9,135 20.5
1972-73 8,411 16.9   1,324 2.7   9,735 19.6
1973-74 10,832 18.0   1,396 2.3   12,228 20.3
1974-75 14,141 19.9   1,502 2.1   15,643 22.0
1975-76 16,920 20.3   1,807 2.2   18,727 22.5
1976-77 19,714 20.5   2,176 2.3   21,890 22.8
1977-78 21,428 20.4   2,591 2.5   24,019 22.9
1978-79 23,409 19.7   2,720 2.3   26,129 22.0
1979-80 27,473 20.4   2,848 2.1   30,321 22.5
1980-81 32,641 21.4   3,352 2.2   35,993 23.6
1981-82 37,880 21.6   3,619 2.1   41,499 23.6
1982-83 41,025 21.7   4,438 2.3   45,463 24.0
1983-84 44,849 21.0   5,132 2.4   49,981 23.4
1984-85 52,970 22.5   5,847 2.5   58,817 25.0
1985-86 58,841 22.6   7,365 2.8   66,206 25.4
1986-87 66,467 23.3   8,257 2.9   74,724 26.2
1987-88 75,076 23.1   8,415 2.6   83,491 25.7
1988-89 83,452 22.7   7,296 2.0   90,748 24.7
1989-90 90,773 22.4   7,852 1.9   98,625 24.4
1990‑91 92,739 22.3   7,488 1.8   100,227 24.1
1991‑92 87,364 20.6   8,476 2.0   95,840 22.6
1992‑93 88,760 20.0   8,873 2.0   97,633 22.0
1993‑94 93,362 20.0   10,462 2.2   103,824 22.2
1994‑95 104,921 21.1   8,537 1.7   113,458 22.9
1995‑96 115,700 21.8   8,729 1.6   124,429 23.5
1996‑97 124,559 22.4   9,033 1.6   133,592 24.0
1997‑98 130,984 22.2   9,752 1.7   140,736 23.9
1998‑99 138,420 22.3   13,643 2.2   152,063 24.5
1999‑00 151,313 22.9   14,887 2.2   166,199 25.1
2000‑01 170,354 24.1   12,641 1.8   182,996 25.9
2001‑02 175,108 23.2   12,481 1.7   187,588 24.8
2002‑03 192,131 24.0   12,482 1.6   204,613 25.5
2003‑04 206,091 24.0   11,683 1.4   217,775 25.3
2004‑05 223,314 24.2   12,669 1.4   235,984 25.6
2005‑06 241,215 24.2   14,728 1.5   255,943 25.7
2006‑07 257,392 23.8   15,245 1.4   272,637 25.2
2007‑08 278,376 23.7   16,540 1.4   294,917 25.1
2008‑09 272,627 21.7   19,973 1.6   292,600 23.3
2009‑10 260,973 20.2   23,689 1.8   284,662 22.0
2010‑11 280,839 20.0   21,185 1.5   302,024 21.5
2011‑12 309,943 21.0   19,931 1.4   329,874 22.4
2012‑13(e) 326,297 21.6   24,113 1.6   350,410 23.2
2013‑14(e) 348,040 22.2   21,325 1.4   369,364 23.6
2014‑15(e) 367,351 22.5   22,809 1.4   390,160 23.8
2015‑16(p) 398,471 23.1   24,817 1.4   423,288 24.6
2016‑17(p) 427,936 23.6   22,800 1.3   450,736 24.8

(a) Data have been revised in the 2013 Economic Statement to improve accuracy and comparability through time.

(b) Receipts are equal to receipts from operating activities and sales of non‑financial assets.

(a) Estimates.

(p) Projections.

 

Table C3: Australian Government general government sector net debt and net interest payments(a)
  Net debt(b)    Net interest payments(c)
  $m Per cent of GDP   $m Per cent of GDP
1970-71 344 0.9   -189 -0.5
1971-72 -496 -1.1   -245 -0.6
1972-73 -790 -1.6   -252 -0.5
1973-74 -1,851 -3.1   -286 -0.5
1974-75 -1,901 -2.7   -242 -0.3
1975-76 -341 -0.4   -330 -0.4
1976-77 898 0.9   -62 -0.1
1977-78 2,896 2.8   4 0.0
1978-79 4,983 4.2   254 0.2
1979-80 6,244 4.6   440 0.3
1980-81 6,356 4.2   620 0.4
1981-82 5,919 3.4   680 0.4
1982-83 9,151 4.8   896 0.5
1983-84 16,015 7.5   1,621 0.8
1984-85 21,896 9.3   2,813 1.2
1985-86 26,889 10.3   3,952 1.5
1986-87 29,136 10.2   4,762 1.7
1987-88 27,344 8.4   4,503 1.4
1988-89 21,981 6.0   4,475 1.2
1989-90 16,123 4.0   4,549 1.1
1990‑91 16,915 4.1   3,636 0.9
1991‑92 31,041 7.3   3,810 0.9
1992‑93 55,218 12.4   3,986 0.9
1993‑94 70,223 15.0   5,628 1.2
1994‑95 83,492 16.8   7,292 1.5
1995‑96 95,831 18.1   8,861 1.7
1996‑97 96,281 17.3   9,489 1.7
1997‑98 82,935 14.1   8,279 1.4
1998‑99 72,065 11.6   8,649 1.4
1999‑00 53,869 8.1   7,514 1.1
2000‑01 42,719 6.0   6,195 0.9
2001‑02 38,180 5.1   5,352 0.7
2002‑03 29,047 3.6   3,758 0.5
2003‑04 22,639 2.6   3,040 0.4
2004‑05 10,741 1.2   2,502 0.3
2005‑06 -4,531 -0.5   2,303 0.2
2006‑07 -29,150 -2.7   228 0.0
2007‑08 -44,820 -3.8   -1,015 -0.1
2008‑09 -16,148 -1.3   -1,196 -0.1
2009‑10 42,283 3.3   2,386 0.2
2010‑11 84,551 6.0   4,608 0.3
2011‑12 147,334 10.0   6,609 0.4
2012‑13(e) 161,603 10.7   8,238 0.5
2013‑14(e) 184,065 11.7   8,351 0.5
2014‑15(e) 212,246 13.0   9,485 0.6
2015‑16(p) 219,114 12.7   11,508 0.7
2016‑17(p) 217,634 12.0   9,969 0.5

(a) Data have been revised in the 2013 Economic Statement to improve accuracy and comparability through time.

(b) Net debt is equal to the sum of deposits held, government securities, loans and other borrowing, minus the sum of cash and deposits, advances paid and investments, loans and placements.

(c) Net interest payments are equal to the difference between interest paid and interest receipts.

(e) Estimates.

(p) Projections.


1 Prior to the 2008‑09 Budget, cash data calculated under the cash accounting framework was used up to and including 1998‑99. In the 2008‑09 Budget, cash data prior to 1998‑99 was replaced by ABS data derived from the accrual framework.

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